This is the first report of the soluble folate binding proteins (sFBPs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study complements ongoing controlled clinical trials and suggests that leucovorin may be effective for children with ASD who are positive for sFBPs. Further, sFBPs might be important biomarkers for treatment response to leucovorin in children with ASD. This study paves the way for further controlled studies for patients with sFBPs.